PGxCheck...What is our DNA saying?




We need to consider how genetic information

can help us with respect to healthcare. We are able to perform genetic testing more readily,

but how are we using the results? Join in the discussion!


Personalized medicine and pharmacogenomics (the influence of genetics on drugs) is here. It is in its infancy and we all will watch it grow. From healthcare professionals to the general public, pharmacogenomics and the broader area of personalized medicine will present a learning curve.

This blog is made possible through an individual making their genetic information available. 

As we learn what this individual's genetics are telling us...and what it is not telling us, we will discuss it. I am sure there will be many questions. We will have individuals from pharmacy, genetics, ethics, law, and other disciplines adding their expertise and thoughts to the discussion. I sincerely hope you will contemplate the information, formulate your thoughts, and participate in the discussion!

Education and Personalized Medicine - A challenge to you!

We have been spending quite a bit of time on information related to disease risk and drug response and a bit of time on ethical issues and most recently, all the "pieces of the pie" that must come together to make personalized medicine a reality. Hopefully, society will come to accept personalized medicine and the use of DNA in a positive manner to improve health. Since our DNA DOES NOT CHANGE, we are "stuck" with our genetic influence on disease and drug response...this will NOT change with time.

What will change with time is the amount of information that is available and the opportunities to educate ourselves. The two therapeutic areas where most of the DNA information is currently being applied are oncology and psychiatry. Certainly in oncology, the DNA of some tumors are used to identify targeted drug therapy. Unfortunately, the cancer area is very difficult and each cancer appears to have its own genetics. So, while some cancers are better understood, the genetics of all cancer cells have eluded us. This is a very difficult area and we are learning more and more every day.

So, speaking of learning, here is the challenge. Please go online and search for any piece of information related to personalized medicine that you believe can be used to educate us about genetics, DNA, pharmacogenetics, or personalized medicine itself. Then post the link. I would like to see at least 50 posts!!! We will then have a repository of some information that can be useful.

19 comments | Add a New Comment
1. Myranda Smith | November 13, 2013 at 01:35 PM EST

This is a great site that really explains the nitty gritty of pharmacogenomics:

One great idea I learned from that site is that \Genetics also underlies hypersensitivity reactions in patients who are allergic to certain drugs, such as penicillin, wherein the body mounts a rapid, aggressive immune response that can cause not only a rash, but can also hinder breathing and cause edema to the point of cardiovascular collapse\.

2. Celine Raible | November 13, 2013 at 01:47 PM EST

This article covers the common FAQ's about pharmacogenomics:

Content includes what pharmacogenomics is and how it is relevant to today's society. It also talks about new findings because of pharmacogenomics.

3. Molly Wheeler | November 13, 2013 at 01:50 PM EST

This site is a really good overview of personalized medicine that helped me clarify my understanding of personalized medicine. After reading this article, I feel I could explain personalized medicine to someone else is a much better and more concise manner. It touches on what personalized medicine is, how it can be used in the future, and also about payment and personal privacy.

4. Clayton Miller | November 13, 2013 at 02:08 PM EST

Here is a link to a website that I thought to have useful information:

This website, founded by the Coriell Institute for Medical Research,gives greater definition to DNA, personalized medicine and various other topics DFK has discussed in the blog. As well as information, the site gives greater detail on the Coriell Personalized Medicine Collaborative which is a scientific study that dives deeper into understanding personalized medicine and its effects on people.

5. Whitney Rader | November 13, 2013 at 02:10 PM EST

This page consists of some common questions in regards with genetics. It provides great answers that are detailed but still easy to follow.

6. Allie Harrison | November 13, 2013 at 04:23 PM EST

The following web page is from United Health Group concerning various aspects of genetic testing: It discusses what genetic testing is, how the tests are being used, what doctors think about them, and the benefits patients experience from the tests.

7. Shelby Evans | November 13, 2013 at 07:11 PM EST

This article gives an overview of what pharmacogenomics is and explains recent research about genetic variations accompanying metabolism, as well as some specific genes present in patients with various illnesses. It also talks about some current challenges pharmacogenomics is facing.

8. Kim Trask | November 14, 2013 at 03:09 PM EST

This is an article I found that gives an overview of personalized medicine as well as diving deeper into the possible benefits in the psychiatric side of medicine. It explains how most antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs are metabolized by the CYP2C6 and CYP2C19 (which we have been discussing) so genetic tests would be highly beneficial in this practice. There are currently 5 tests they use to determine effectiveness of certain drugs that will help advance the knowledge of dosing certain drugs for psychiatric patients.

I also found it interesting that they discussed the pharmaceutical company's unwillingness to create drugs that require genetic testing prior to prescribing. This is because it would create a smaller niche of customers that buy their product leaving them will less of a profit. Unfortunately this is not the direction we want health care going and instead wish that companies would create drugs that were more beneficial, regardless of their loss.

Overall a great resource to look at specific examples of personalized medicine as well as some economic issues that come with it!

9. Jasmine Hossler | November 14, 2013 at 05:42 PM EST

I found this website a membership is required to access all of the information but the information available would allow us to translate information from our genetics directly to drugs.

10. Kara Horvath | November 15, 2013 at 09:14 PM EST

I found this website when I searched \pharmacogenomic testing\ on Google: This article is very relevant to our recent focus of pharmacodynamics, specifically relating to warfarin metabolism. For us, as future pharmacists, it is important for us to understand drug metabolism, and we can apply our knowledge from this example to help us understand other drug-gene interactions.

As I have been reading everyone else's posts and reading the discussions about the \pieces of the pie\ of personalized medicine, I realized how important it is for awareness and education relating to DNA. With this new research and the growth of personalized medicine, it is important for all people to understand how DNA defines us and is the code of all life.

11. Katlyn Brown | November 16, 2013 at 05:34 PM EST

This is a site I found when I looked up pharmacogenomics education. The site tells the basic information of the goal and how it can improve our medical care, but also provides other links to it's role in medical care and careers that include pharmacogenomics. I found the careers to be interesting because it talks about future and current jobs that are out there for pharmacist.

12. Alexandria Lacombe | November 16, 2013 at 06:25 PM EST

This site gives a great overview of personalized medicine, pharmacogenomics, and DNA. It then relates those things to cancer. This website shows some of the implications and uses that personalized medicine is working toward and will more than likely accomplish regarding cancer treatments. I thought it was interesting because it is educating about a specific implication and showing something to look forward to in the future with personalized medicine.

13. Shawn Wolf | November 16, 2013 at 08:48 PM EST

This is more about the things blocking personalized medicine and drug companies reactions to it and less about the actual science behind it.

14. Meagan Brandt | November 17, 2013 at 07:48 PM EST

This is an article that gives the insight on what personalized medicine is. It helps to clarify what it is used for and how it can help people who are sick, and also people to determine, like we've talked about, what types of medicines might work better for certain types of people. There is a lot of broad information, this site would be used for informing people with a low knowledge level of what personalized medicine is about..

15. Alec Kaple | November 19, 2013 at 05:40 PM EST

Here is a website that actually talks about a specific type of stem cells, induced pluripotent, that are seen as having great potential for the development of personalized medicine

There is a specific section of the article entitled HARNESSING iPS CELLS TO DEVELOP IMPROVED DISEASE MODELS, that talks about personalized medicine

16. Kassie Gross | December 02, 2013 at 05:13 PM EST

This website I found gave a lot of information that was easy to understand and follow.

17. Brady Giles | December 04, 2013 at 12:31 AM EST

This is a good site that gives both a good overview of what personalized medicine is as well as in depth explanations of both pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics and some of the opportunities that personalized medicine can lead to, especially regarding cancer. It also gives some challenges to personalized medicine as well.

18. Hayley Sayre | December 09, 2013 at 01:59 PM EST

As a whole Personalized Medicine is the idea of using ones unique genetic make up to create a medical plan that best suits that one individual. This link explains exactly what personalized medicine is and also many benefits to it!! This link will also have information that many of you probably heard in your POP1 classes when were all given our projects!

19. Kortney Manning | December 11, 2013 at 01:34 AM EST

An interesting website that has a basic overview of pharmacogenomics and pharmacoegenetics, as well as some basic information on CYP 450. It says that CYP 450 belongs in a family of liver enzymes and is responsible for breaking down many different types of drugs, and can affect how well a person metabolizes a certain drug such as Warfarin and Tamoxifen. I think this was touched on earlier in the course, but it explains it in a different way that I found interesting. It mentioned p450, but I got confused as to whether it is intended to aid CYP 450 or if it is just something that can test for how well CYP 450 works...

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